# Learning Mathematics at Elementary Level 2 – Enriching Contents and Methodology

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## Contents covered in this part of the PDF book under Learning Mathematics at Elementary Level 2 – Enriching Contents and Methodology

### Unit 5 Numbers, Operations on Numbers

• 5.0 Introduction
• 5.1 Learning Objectives
• 5.2 Different Sets of Numbers
• 5.2.1 Counting Numbers and Whole Numbers
• 5.2.2 Integers
• 5.2.3 Rational Numbers
• 5.3 Properties of Operations on Numbers
• 5.3.1 Operations on Natural and Whole Numbers
• 5.3.2 Operations on Integers
• 5.3.3 Operations on Rational Numbers
• 5.4 Factors and Multiples
• 5.4.1 Common Factors and the Highest Common Factor
• 5.4.2 Common Multiples and the Lowest Common Multiple
• 5.5 Arithmetic and Application
• 5.6 Let Us Sum Up
• 5.8 Suggested Readings and References
• 5.9 Unit-End Exercises

### Unit 6 Shapes and Spatial Relationships

• 6.0 Introduction
• 6.1 Learning Objectives
• 6.2 Basic Geometrical Figures
• 6.2.1 Undefined Terms
• 6.2.2 Basic Figures
• 6.3 Two Dimensional Closed Figures
• 6.3.1 Triangles
• 6.3.3 Circle
• 6.3.4 Congruence and Similarity
• 6.3.5 Reflection and Symmetry
• 6.4 Three Dimensional Shapes
• 6.5 Construction using Geometrical Tools
• 6.6 Let Us Sum Up
• 6.9 Unit End Exercises

### Unit 7 Measures and Measurements

• 7.0 Introduction
• 7.1 Learning Objectives
• 7.2 Concept of Measurement and Measures
• 7.3 Non-standard and Standard Measures
• 7.3.1 Measuring Length
• 7.3.2 Measuring Area
• 7.3.3 Measuring Volume
• 7.3.4 Measuring Weight
• 7.4 Metric System of Measurement
• 7.5 Measurement of Time
• 7.6 Let Us Sum up
• 7.8 Suggested Readings and References
• 7.9 Unit-End Exercise

### Unit 8 Data Handling

• 8.0 Introduction
• 8.1 Learning Objectives
• 8.2 Collection and representation of data
• 8.2.1 Collection of data
• 8.2.2 Tabular representation of data
• 8.3 Pictorial depiction of data
• 8.3.1 Pictorial
• 8.3.2 Bar graph
• 8.3.3 Histogram
• 8.3.4 Pie Chart
• 8.4 Data Analysis
• 8.4.1 Measures of Central Tendency
• 8.4.1.1 Arithmetic Mean
• 8.4.1.2 Median
• 8.4.1.3 Mode
• 8.4.2 Measures of Variability
• 8.5 Let Us Sum Up
• 8.7 Suggested Readings and References
• 8.8 Unit-End Exercises

### Unit 9 Algebra as generalized Arithmetic

• 9.0 Introduction
• 9.1 Learning Objectives
• 9.2 Using Symbols for Numbers
• 9.3 Algebraic Terms and Expressions
• 9.3.1 Algebraic Expressions
• 9.3.2 Variable and Constant
• 9.3.3 Terms of an Algebraic Expression
• 9.3.4 Product, Factor and Coefficients
• 9.3.5 Like and Unlike Terms
• 9.4 Operation on Algebraic Expressions
• 9.4.2 Subtraction
• 9.4.3 Multiplication
• 9.4.4 Division
• 9.5 Linear Algebraic Equation and its Solution
• 9.5.1 Linear Algebraic Equations
• 9.5.2 Solving Linear Equations
• 9.6 Application of Algebraic Methods
• 9.7 Let Us Sum Up
• 9.8 Key points