The PDF file below covers the chapter **Learning Mathematics at Elementary Level 2 – Enriching Contents and Methodology**. The specific topics and contents of the file are listed below.

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## Contents covered in this part of the PDF book under Learning Mathematics at Elementary Level 2 – Enriching Contents and Methodology

### Unit 5 Numbers, Operations on Numbers

- 5.0 Introduction
- 5.1 Learning Objectives
- 5.2 Different Sets of Numbers
- 5.2.1 Counting Numbers and Whole Numbers
- 5.2.2 Integers
- 5.2.3 Rational Numbers
- 5.3 Properties of Operations on Numbers
- 5.3.1 Operations on Natural and Whole Numbers
- 5.3.2 Operations on Integers
- 5.3.3 Operations on Rational Numbers
- 5.4 Factors and Multiples
- 5.4.1 Common Factors and the Highest Common Factor
- 5.4.2 Common Multiples and the Lowest Common Multiple
- 5.5 Arithmetic and Application
- 5.6 Let Us Sum Up
- 5.7 Model Answers to Check Your Progress
- 5.8 Suggested Readings and References
- 5.9 Unit-End Exercises

### Unit 6 Shapes and Spatial Relationships

- 6.0 Introduction
- 6.1 Learning Objectives
- 6.2 Basic Geometrical Figures
- 6.2.1 Undefined Terms
- 6.2.2 Basic Figures
- 6.3 Two Dimensional Closed Figures
- 6.3.1 Triangles
- 6.3.2 Quadrilaterals
- 6.3.3 Circle
- 6.3.4 Congruence and Similarity
- 6.3.5 Reflection and Symmetry
- 6.4 Three Dimensional Shapes
- 6.5 Construction using Geometrical Tools
- 6.6 Let Us Sum Up
- 6.7 Check Your Progress
- 6.8 Suggested Reading &Reference
- 6.9 Unit End Exercises

### Unit 7 Measures and Measurements

- 7.0 Introduction
- 7.1 Learning Objectives
- 7.2 Concept of Measurement and Measures
- 7.3 Non-standard and Standard Measures
- 7.3.1 Measuring Length
- 7.3.2 Measuring Area
- 7.3.3 Measuring Volume
- 7.3.4 Measuring Weight
- 7.4 Metric System of Measurement
- 7.5 Measurement of Time
- 7.6 Let Us Sum up
- 7.7 Model Answers to Check Your Progress
- 7.8 Suggested Readings and References
- 7.9 Unit-End Exercise

### Unit 8 Data Handling

- 8.0 Introduction
- 8.1 Learning Objectives
- 8.2 Collection and representation of data
- 8.2.1 Collection of data
- 8.2.2 Tabular representation of data
- 8.3 Pictorial depiction of data
- 8.3.1 Pictorial
- 8.3.2 Bar graph
- 8.3.3 Histogram
- 8.3.4 Pie Chart
- 8.4 Data Analysis
- 8.4.1 Measures of Central Tendency
- 8.4.1.1 Arithmetic Mean
- 8.4.1.2 Median
- 8.4.1.3 Mode
- 8.4.2 Measures of Variability
- 8.5 Let Us Sum Up
- 8.6 Model Answers to Check Your Progress
- 8.7 Suggested Readings and References
- 8.8 Unit-End Exercises

### Unit 9 Algebra as generalized Arithmetic

- 9.0 Introduction
- 9.1 Learning Objectives
- 9.2 Using Symbols for Numbers
- 9.3 Algebraic Terms and Expressions
- 9.3.1 Algebraic Expressions
- 9.3.2 Variable and Constant
- 9.3.3 Terms of an Algebraic Expression
- 9.3.4 Product, Factor and Coefficients
- 9.3.5 Like and Unlike Terms
- 9.4 Operation on Algebraic Expressions
- 9.4.1 Addition
- 9.4.2 Subtraction
- 9.4.3 Multiplication
- 9.4.4 Division
- 9.5 Linear Algebraic Equation and its Solution
- 9.5.1 Linear Algebraic Equations
- 9.5.2 Solving Linear Equations
- 9.6 Application of Algebraic Methods
- 9.7 Let Us Sum Up
- 9.8 Key points
- 9.9 Answers to Check Your Progress
- 9.10 Suggested Readings & References
- 9.11 Unit-End Exercise

This study material was originally published on the National Institute of Open Schooling – NIOS website as part of the study material for the Diploma in Elementary Education (D.El.Ed) programme.

If you have any questions or doubts related to Learning Mathematics at Elementary Level 2 – Enriching Contents and Methodology or other topics under Child Development & Pedagogy, Mathematics, EVS, Social Science or other subjects for CTET Paper 1 and Paper 2 and other similar teaching exams, such as KVS, TET, REET, DSSSB, UPTET, MPTET, MahaTET, APTET, TSTET, RTET, HTET, KARTET, TNTET and PSTET, you can contact us through the comments section of any video on the **MagicExam YouTube channel**.

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