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Learning Science at Upper Primary Level 1 – Understanding Science

The PDF file below covers the chapter Learning Science at Upper Primary Level 1 – Understanding Science. The specific topics and contents of the file are listed below.

This study material is useful for the study and revision of the essential and important concepts of Child Development & Pedagogy, Mathematics Pedagogy, EVS Pedagogy, Social Science Pedagogy and Language Pedagogy for CTET Paper 1 and Paper 2 and other teaching exams, such as KVS, TET, REET, DSSSB, UPTET, MPTET, MahaTET, APTET, TSTET, RTET, HTET KARTET, TNTET and PSTET.

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Contents covered in this part of the PDF book under Learning Science at Upper Primary Level 1 – Understanding Science

Unit 1 : Nature of Science

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Learning Objectives
  • 1.2 History and Philosophy of Science
  • 1.2.1 Ancient period
  • 1.2.2 Medieval period
  • 1.2.3 Modern period
  • 1.2.4 Philosophy of Science
  • 1.3 What is Science
  • 1.3.1 Definition and general characteristics
  • 1.3.2 Nature of Science
  • 1.3.3 Process of Science
  • 1.4 Scientific knowledge
  • 1.4.1 Hypothesis
  • 1.4.2 Theory
  • 1.4.3 Natural law
  • 1.4.4 Facts
  • 1.4.5 Evidence
  • 1.4.6 Paradigms
  • 1.4.7 Inductive reference
  • 1.4.8 Deductive reference
  • 1.5 Scientific thinking
  • 1.5.1 Empiricism
  • 1.5.2 Skepticism
  • 1.5.3 Rationalism
  • 1.6 Scientific methods
  • 1.6.1 What is scientific method
  • 1.6.2 Steps involved in scientific method
  • 1.6.3 Scientific attitude
  • 1.7 Let Us Sum Up
  • 1.8 Abbreviation/Glossary
  • 1.9 Suggested Readings and References
  • 1.10 Unit-End Exercises

Unit 2 : Scientific Inquiry

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Learning objectives
  • 2.2 Concept of scientific inquiry
  • 2.2.1 Forms of Inquiry
  • 2.3 Process of “Scientific Inquiry”
  • 2.3.1 Engaging Learners in Scientific Processes
  • 2.3.2 Raising Questions for Inquiry
  • 2.3.3 Hypothesizing to get Directions
  • 2.3.4 Predicting for Getting Direction for Observations
  • 2.4.5 Observing for Collecting Information
  • 2.3.6 Searching for Patterns and Relationships
  • 2.3.7 Devising and Planning Inquiry
  • 2.3.8 Designing and Making Equipment
  • 2.3.9 Manipulating Material and Equipment
  • 2.3.10 Measuring and Calculating
  • 2.3.11 Articulating and Communicating
  • 2.3.12 Self-Reflection for Self-Actualization
  • 2.3.13 Inquiry in Personal Life
  • 2.4 Let Us Sum Up
  • 2.5 Suggested Readings and References
  • 2.6 Unit-End Exercises

Unit 3 : Different Approaches to Teaching Science

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Learning Objectives.
  • 3.2 Methodology of Teaching
  • 3.3 Expository Approaches or Transmission Approach
  • 3.3.1 Statement of Rule
  • 3.3.2 Clarification/Explanation of Rule
  • 3.3.3 Justification of The Rule
  • 3.3.4 Application of The Rule
  • 3.3.5 Advantages
  • 3.3.6 Limitations
  • 3.4 Discovery Approaches- Advantages, Limitations
  • 3.4.1 Clarification of the Rule
  • 3.4.2 Justification of the Rule
  • 3.4.3 Statement of the Rule
  • 3.4.4 Application of the Rule
  • 3.4.5 Advantages
  • 3.4.6 Limitations
  • 3.5 Inquiry Approaches or Process Skills
  • 3.5.1 Clarification of the Rule
  • 3.5.2 Justification of the Rule
  • 3.5.3 Statement of the Rule
  • 3.5.4 Application of the Rule
  • 3.5.5 Advantages
  • 3.5.6 Limitations
  • 3.6 Let Us Sum Up
  • 3.7 Suggested Readings and References
  • 3.8 Unit-End Exercises

Unit 4 : Hands on Experiences: Role and Importance

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Learning Objectives
  • 4.2 Role and Importance of Hands on Experience
  • 4.2.1 Role and Importance of Hand on Experience
  • 4.2.2 Make use of senses
  • 4.3 Role of First Hand Experiences in Children’s Learning
  • 4.3.1 Classification of Experiences
  • 4.3.2 Criteria for Choosing Hands on Experience
  • 4.4 Types of Investigation: In Class And Out of School
  • 4.5 Organising Practical Works
  • 4.5.1 Ten Practical Tips for Teaching Large Classes
  • 4.6 Safety Measures: In Class and Out of School
  • 4.6.1 Creative Science Safety
  • 4.6.2 Hazards and Remedies in School
  • 4.7 Let Us Sum Up
  • 4.8 Suggested Readings and References
  • 4.9 Unit-End Exercises

This study material was originally published on the National Institute of Open Schooling – NIOS website as part of the study material for the Diploma in Elementary Education (D.El.Ed) programme.


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