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Piaget Kohlberg and Vygotsky constructs and critical perspectives CTET CDP 05 हिन्दी

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Piaget Kohlberg and Vygotsky constructs and critical perspectives CTET CDP 05 हिन्दी

Chapter – 00:00 – Piaget, Kohlberg & Vygotsky – Constructs and Critical Perspectives

Chapter – 00:21 – Important Topics covered in this video

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
– Stages of Cognitive Development
– Concept of ‘Schema’
– Stages of Adaptation

Lev Vygotsky – ZPD, Private Speech, Scaffolding
– Make-Believe Play & Self-Regulation

Piaget v. Vygotsky – Comparison

Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
– Stages of Moral Development

Five Sample Questions

Chapter – 01:07 – Jean Piaget

– He was a Swiss psychologist known for his work on Child Development
– He theorized how learners interact with their environment & develop reasoning & knowledge
– He categorized cognitive development into four stages of which correlate with the age of the person

Chapter – 01:33 – Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development – The four stages.

Sensorimotor Stage – Birth to 2 years
– Reflex actions of Infants
– Learning physical or motor skills & senses
– Beginning of Cognitive understanding

Pre-operational Stage – 2 to 7 years
– Ego-centric, illogical thinkers, Animism
– Difficulty in understanding ‘Conservation’
– Develop Symbolism & Moral realism

Concrete Operational Stage – 7 to 12 (or 11) years
– Usage of Concrete objects & Situations for logical thinking
– Understanding of Conservation, Grouping, Ordering

Formal Operational Stage – 12+ (or 11+) years
– Development of Abstract thought
– Able to deal with Complex situations

Chapter – 07:30 – Jean Piaget’s – Concept of Schema

Piaget called the schema the basic building block of intelligent behaviour.

It is a way of organizing knowledge.

For example, a Schematic Diagram shows what things are, where do they fit-in and how they are interconnected.

Chapter – 09:54 – How we use a ‘Schema’ in real life – An example.

Chapter – 11:35 – Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Process of Adaptation follows five steps.

(1) New Situation – (2) Disequilibrium – (3) Assimilation – (4) Accommodation – (5) Equilibration

Assimilation : Absorbing new knowledge into the current schemas.

Accommodation: Changing current Schemas to accommodate new knowledge.

Chapter – 14:18 – Criticism of Jean Piaget’s Theory

– Piaget’s research methodology was relatively unstructured – making it difficult for others to replicate his results
– A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget’s observations of his own three children
– The other children in Piaget’s small research sample were all from well-educated families of high socio-economic status
– Most researchers agree that children possess many of the abilities at an earlier age than Piaget suspected

Vygotsky asserted that :
– development is complex and is effected by social & cultural influences
– Biological & Cultural development are intrinsically linked, and do not develop on their own

Chapter – 17:13 – Introduction of Lev Vygotsky

– He was a Soviet-Russian Psychologist
– He is a proponent of the Social Constructivist theory of Learning and Development
– The three important factors in his theory are Society, Culture and Language (SCL)

Key Concepts covered in Vygotsky’s theory :
– Zone of Proximal Development
– Scaffolding
– More Knowledgeable Other
– Social, Private & Silent-Inner Speech

Chapter – 17:49 – Lev Vygotsky – Importance of Language in the Construction of Knowledge

Vygotsky considered language as one of the most important factors in the Construction of Knowledge – since it is not only a means of communication; but also used for processing information into knowledge.

Language is used in social interactions with Family, Peers, Teachers and Community members. It is also used to understand Cultural factors such as Religious Beliefs, Customs & Traditions, Moral Values, Laws & Rules

Chapter – 18:52 – Lev Vygotsky – Importance of Play

Vygotsky argued that play is also important for an individual’s cognitive development. During play children are able to think in more complex ways than in their everyday lives; and make up rules, use symbols and create narratives.

Chapter – 19:37 – Vygotsky – ZPD – Explained.

ZPD consists of the activities for which the learner may have the required basic skills and knowledge; but can currently do with some help and support. Once the learner becomes comfortable with the activity, it will become part of the list that he can complete independently.

Chapter – 20:38 – Vygotsky – ZPD – An example on how the Zone of Proximal Development evolves over a person’s lifetime.

Chapter – 23:15 – Scaffolding

Scaffolding is the Temporary Support (During Construction) used till the structure (such as concrete slab) becomes strong enough to bear it’s own load.

Chapter – 24:11 – Vygotsky – What is Scaffolding in Vygotsky’s theory ?

Scaffolding is the Temporary Support or Assistance given to the Learner in the Zone of Proximal Development – i.e. the support provided to learners in such activities, which they can do, but only with some assistance or guidance.

Chapter – 24:42 – Vygotsky – Who provides Scaffolding?

Scaffolding is provided to the Learner by ‘More Knowledgeable Others’ such as Parents, Family Members, Teachers, Friends, Community Members

Chapter – 25:15 – Vygotsky – Type of Speech

Social Speech – 2 years onwards. For external communication
Private Speech – 3 years onwards. For self-guidance & self-regulation of behaviour
Silent-Inner Speech – 7 years onwards. For self-guidance & self-regulation of behaviour

Chapter – 27:07 – Vygotsky – Make-Believe Play & Self Regulation

– Make-believe play helps in the development of symbolic thought and self-regulation.
– Symbolic thought refers to the use of symbols (e.g., words and images) and mental representations of objects or events to represent the world.
– Self-regulation includes controlling attention, suppressing impulses, controlling responses, planning, organizing, monitoring & completing complex tasks.

Chapter – 29:52 – Criticism of Vygotsky’s Theory

– Vygotsky’s theory does not give importance to the biological aspects of development
– The ZPD also does not explain the process of development or how development actually occurs
– Socio-cultural theory disregards the role of the individual, but regards the collective
– The theory does not recognize that individuals can rise above social norms based on their ability to bring about personal understanding e.g. gifted students or child prodigies
– Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory does not seem to apply to all social and cultural groups

Chapter – 32:09 – Piaget v. Vygotsky – Comparison

Piaget’s Theory  Vygotsky’s Theory
Sociocultural  Little emphasis Strong emphasis
Constructivism  Cognitive constructivist  Social constructivist
Stages  Cognitive development follows universal stages  Cognitive development is dependent on social context (no stages)
Learning & Development  The child is a ‘lone scientist’, develops knowledge through own exploration  Learning through social interactions. Child builds knowledge by working with others
Role of Language  Thought drives language development  Language drives cognitive development
Role of the Teacher  Provide opportunities for children to learn about the world for themselves (discovery learning)  Assist the child to progress through the ZPD by using scaffolding (assisted learning)

Chapter – 34:52 – About Lawrence Kohlberg

– He was an American Psychologist
– He was a proponent of the Constructivist approach of Learning and Development
– He is well known for his Theory of stages of moral development
– Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development has Six Stages and Three Levels

Chapter – 35:27 – Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Theory

In simple words, a moral decision is when a person has to choose between a ‘Right’ and a ‘Wrong’ course of action.

Chapter – 36:12 – Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Theory

There are Six Stages – ‘S-S’ and Three Levels in Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory.

I.e. Each level has two stages.

Chapter – 36:28 – Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Theory

The basis on which people take moral decisions at various stages of their moral development process:

Level 1 – Pre-Conventional
—————————-
Stage 1 – Avoiding Punishment
Stage 2 – Expecting a Reward

Level 2 – Conventional
—————————-
Stage 3 – For Others Approval – ‘Good Boy – Good Girl’
Stage 4 – Obeying Law & Order

Level 3 – Post-Conventional
—————————-
Stage 5 – Social Good & Social Contract
Stage 6 – Universal Principles of Ethics & Moral Principles

Chapter – 38:43 – Criticism of Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory
– The research methodology used had artificial & hypothetical dilemmas
– He based his theory on a sample group of Male participants only – Possible Gender Bias
– In real life, people define what is right or wrong separately, depending on the situation they found themselves in
– Moral Judgment may not always match Moral Behaviour

Chapter – 41:08 – Vygotsky emphasised the significance of the role played by which of the following factors in the learning of children?
– social
– hereditary
– moral
– physical

Chapter – 41:35 – As a teacher who firmly believes in the social constructivist theory of Lev Vygotsky, which of the following methods would you prefer for assessing your students?
– standardized tests
– fact-based recall questions
– objective multiple-choice type questions
– collaborative projects

Chapter – 42:57 – According to Piaget, at which of the following stages does a child begin to think logically about abstract propositions?
– concrete operational stage (07-11 years)
– formal operational stage (11 years and up)
– sensorimotor stage (birth-02 years)
– pre-operational stage (02-07 years)

Chapter – 43:44 – According to Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, the sensorimotor stage is associated with
– concerns about social issues
– imitation, memory, and mental representation
– ability to solve problems in logical fashion
– ability to interpret and analyse options

Chapter – 45:19 – In the context of Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, under which stage would the given typical response of a child fall? “Your parents will be proud of you if you are honest. So you should be honest.”
– Social contract orientation
– Punishment-obedience orientation
– Good girl-good boy orientation
– Law and order orientation


Click on the YouTube video link in the article above, to watch the entire video on YouTube. You can also click on the 'Chapter' link time-stamps to go directly to the specific question or part of the video.

Subscribe to MagicExam YouTube channel for free videos on CTET 2022 and 2023, KVS, TET, REET, DSSSB, UPTET, MPTET, MahaTET, APTET, TSTET, RTET, HTET, PSTET, KARTET, TNTET and other teaching exam preparation, solved question papers, syllabus analysis, result related news and other information videos.

If you have any questions, comments or feedback - please post them as YouTube comments under the specific videos and we will clarify or reply as soon as possible.
Piaget Kohlberg Vygotsky Constructs Critical Perspectives CTET CDP Syllabus Explanation Youtube Hindi