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Basic Processes Of Teaching Learning Children’s Strategies Learning Social Activity Context CTET CDP 18 हिन्दी

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Basic Processes Teaching Learning Children's Strategies Social Activity Context CTET CDP 18 हिन्दी

Chapter – 00:00 Basic Processes Of Teaching & Learning; Children’s Strategies Of Learning; Learning As A Social Activity; Social Context Of Learning.

Chapter – 00:25 Important Topics

– What are ‘Teaching’ and ‘Learning’ ?
– Basics of Teaching
– Levels of Teaching
– Maxims of Teaching
– Phases of Teaching
– Plan vs. Strategy
– Teaching Strategies – Autocratic & Democratic
– Important Learning Theories
– Basics of Learning
– Conditioning, Observational, Cognitive, Verbal, Concept & Skill learning
– Transfer of Learning – Positive, Negative & Neutral
– Universal Design for Learning
– Children’s Strategies of Learning
– Learning as a Social Activity – The Social Context
– The Seven Principles of Learning

Chapter – 01:52 What are ‘Teaching’ and ‘Learning’?

Teaching includes all attempts to bring a desired change in the habits, skills, knowledge, attitude, values, feeling, thinking, behaviour or actions of the Learners.

Learning is a change in the habits, skills, knowledge, attitude, values, feeling, thinking, behaviour or actions of a person.

Basic Steps of Teaching
– General and Specific Aims
– Meaningful and Contextual
– Motivation
– Content Delivery
– Reinforcement
– Stimulation
– Revision and Practice

Chapter – 05:13 Levels of Teaching

Memory Level – Thoughtless Teaching To memorize the content, to pass a specific exam. Get a basic overview, especially when the content is highly structured. For very junior classes.

Understanding Level – Thoughtful Teaching To understand the content, remember facts, consider relationships and gain command over the content. Content is predominantly structured. For Higher level classes.

Reflective Level – Upper Thoughtful Teaching Objective is to gain expertise. Able to raise & solve problems. Content may be unorganized and unstructured. For Projects or Research work.

Chapter – 09:21 Maxims of Teaching

– From easy to difficult
– From concrete to abstract
– From simple to complex
– From direct to indirect
– From whole to parts
– From empirical to rational
– From analysis to synthesis
– From induction to deduction
– From known to unknown

Chapter – 12:21 Phases of Teaching

Pre-active phase – Planning Teacher plans what is to be taught and what are the strategies to be used.

Interactive phase – Action Teacher uses strategies for achieving the goals set to teach students.

Post-active phase – Evaluation Teacher analyses, to what extent students have grasped the material; and the effectiveness of the teaching strategies

Chapter – 13:11 Plan vs. Strategy

Chapter – 13:55 Teaching Strategies

Autocratic Strategies
– Teacher Centric
– Subject Centric

Democratic Strategies
– Student Centric

Both are important and can be used depending on the context.

Chapter – 15:30 Autocratic Teaching Strategies

– Storytelling Method
– Lecture Method
– Demonstration method
– Tutorial Method

Chapter – 18:23 Democratic Teaching Strategies

– Discussion Method
– Heuristic Method
– Discovery Method
– Project method
– Role-playing Method
– Brainstorming
– Questions & Answers – Socratic

Chapter – 22:04 Learning Theories

– Behaviourism
– Cognitivism
– Constructivism
– Gestalt
– Humanism
– Connectivism
– Transformative
– Social
– Experiential

Chapter – 22:26 Learning Theories – Behaviourism

All behaviours are acquired through conditioning – which occurs through interaction with the environment.

Behaviourists believe that our actions and learning are shaped by environmental stimuli.

Conditioning – Classical and Operand, are covered under Behaviourism.

Chapter – 24:35 Learning Theories – Cognitivism

Learning is the acquisition of knowledge.

Learners :
– absorb information,
– use cognitive operations to convert into knowledge and
– store it in memory

Chapter – 25:11 Learning Theories – Constructivism

Learners construct meaning through active engagement with the world – interactions, experiments or real-world problem solving.

The learner builds upon his or her previous experience and understanding to ‘construct’ a new understanding.

Knowledge cannot be simply transferred from the Teacher to the Learners.

Teacher is only a facilitator in the construction of knowledge.

Chapter – 26:53 Learning Theories – Gestalt

The sum of a set of stimuli, such as verbal and non-verbal communication, has a greater influence on behaviour than individual parts.

In other words, the result of a set of stimuli is greater than the simple sum.

Learners should study elements of a subject in relationship to one another rather than simply memorizing them by themselves.

The human brain makes a map of the stimuli caused by life experiences. Whenever the brain sees only part of a picture, it attempts to create a complete picture.

Chapter – 29:45 Learning Theories – Humanism

Humanism is ‘learner-centric approach’ where the focus is on potential, rather than the process or material.

Learners are encouraged to determine their own goals and pace; and the teacher assists in meeting those learning goals.

Chapter – 32:25 Learning Theories – Connectivism

Connectivism is a relatively new learning theory that recognizes that many learners are ‘connected’ to the world in many ways through technology.

Technology is a major part of the learning process and giving learners opportunities to collaborate, discuss and obtain information from various sources.

Connectivism promotes learning that happens beyond traditional methods, such as through social media, blogs etc.

Chapter – 33:45 Learning Theories – Transformative

Transformative learning focuses on adult education and young adult learning.

The main idea is that learners can adjust their thinking based on new information.

Transformative theory is particularly relevant to older learners.

Chapter – 35:02 Learning Theories – Social

Learners observe others and model their own behaviour accordingly.

It can be Positive – absorbing the other’s behaviour or Negative – avoiding the behaviour.

Sometimes it is to emulate peers; other times it’s to distinguish themselves from peers.

Chapter – 35:50 Learning Theories – Experiential

I hear and I forget.
I see and I remember.
I do and I understand.

This theory emphasizes both learning about something and experiencing it so that students can apply knowledge in real-world situations. i.e. Meaningful and Contextual learning

Chapter – 37:02 Theories vs. Types vs. Styles of Learning

Sequential Learning
Simultaneous Learning
Visual Learning
Auditory Learning
Tactile Learning
Rhythmic or Melodic Learning
Verbal Learning
Kinaesthetic Learning
Logical or Reflective Learning
Interactive Learning
Direct Experience Learning
Indirect Experience Learning

Chapter – 39:31 Types of learning

Conditioning
– Classical Conditioning
– Operand Conditioning

Observational Learning – Imitation, Social Learning, Modelling

Cognitive Learning
– Insight Learning
– Latent Learning

Verbal Learning
Concept Learning
Skill Learning

Chapter – 40:19 Types of learning – Conditioning

Classical Conditioning – The Stimulus produces a reflexive Response.

Operand Conditioning – Stimulus initiates a thought, but responding or not responding is under our control. e.g. Should I switch on the fan or not …

Chapter – 41:43 Types of learning – Observational Learning

Observers acquire knowledge by observing the model’s behaviour.

But performance is influenced by model’s behaviour being rewarded or punished. e.g. Imitation, Social Learning, Modelling

Chapter – 43:27 Types of learning – Cognitive Learning

There is a change in what the learner ‘knows’ rather than the learning ‘does’.

Insight Learning

I have an insight, that if I can use a stick to pluck flowers, I can use a longer stick to puck Mangoes.

Latent Learning

My learning is latent, till I have to use it. i.e. I think about using a stick to pluck Mangoes, only when I am in the situation.

Chapter – 46:06 Types of learning – Verbal Learning

Learning happens through words and associations, without actually experiencing the situation. e.g. Don’t touch the flame of a candle.

Chapter – 46:46 Types of learning – Concept Learning

A concept is a category that is used to refer to a number of objects and events.

i.e. ‘Fruit’ is a concept that applies to Apples, Mangoes and Oranges; though they all look and taste different.

Chapter – 47:56 Types of learning – Skill Learning

A skill is the ability to perform some complex task smoothly and efficiently.

e.g. Riding a Bicycle, Driving a Car.

A skill can be learnt through hands-on or experiential mode.

Chapter – 48:54 Transfer of learning

Knowledge or Skills learned in one context, may be transferred and applied in new contexts.
– Positive Transfer
– Negative Transfer
– Neutral Transfer

Theories explaining Transfer of Learning
– Theory of identical elements – E. L. Thorndike
– Theory of generalization of experience – Charles Judd

Chapter – 51:43 Children’s Strategies of Learning

Children learn by employing various strategies that help them to understand, reason, memorize & solve problems.

E.g. Repeating a list to memorize, Mnemonics, Abbreviations

Strategies can be used in Maths, Science, Languages.

– Teachers must recognize the importance of strategies
– Strategies may be taught directly or indirectly
– D – How to outline, underline, summarize, annotate text
– ID – Give children a group task & guide them with examples
– In Science – Children should learn :
– How to form hypotheses
– How to record their work and results
– How to analyse and evaluate
– Children may also develop their own strategies – which should be encouraged (and corrected if required)

Chapter – 54:27 Learning as a Social Activity – The Social Context

– We learn from and with others
– We build on each other’s experiences & understanding
– We learn behaviours and skills by observing others
– We take part in communities that influence our identity

Encouraging Social Learning
– Support the group in creating meaningful relations
– Support collaborative learning in the classrooms
– Explore and include the wisdom of the group
– Grant space for children to learn from one another

Chapter – 57:31 The Seven Principles of 21st Century Learning

– Learners at the centre
– The social nature of learning
– Emotions are integral to learning
– Recognising individual differences
– Stretching all students
– Assessment for learning
– Building horizontal connections

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Chapter – 59:16 Universal Design for Learning

UDL is a framework for how to develop lesson plans and assessments.

Three Main principles of UDL

1. Engagement – Motivate learners and sustain their interest.
– Include learners in decisions
– Give relevant assignments and examples
– Make learning a fun activity
– Allow learners to get up and move around

2. Representation – Offer information in more than one format.
– Use Audio and Video content
– Hands-on learning

3. Action and expression – Use more than one way to interact with the material.
– Written assignments
– Oral reports
– Presentations
– Group projects

Chapter – 01:02:18 Multiple pedagogical techniques, asserted learning material multiple assessment techniques and varying the complexity and nature of the content are associated with which of the following?

– Universal design for learning
– Remedial teaching
– Differentiated instruction
– Reciprocal teaching

Chapter – 01:03:48 Which of the following factors supports learning in a classroom?

– Increasing the number of tests to motivate children to learn
– Supporting the autonomy of children by the teachers
– Sticking to one particular method of instruction to maintain uniformity
– Increasing the time interval of periods from 40 minutes to 50 minutes

Chapter – 01:05:33 Which one of the following is an example of learning style?

– Visual
– Accrual
– Factual
– Tactual

Chapter – 01:06:19 Learning experiences should be planned in a manner, so as to make learning meaningful. Which of the given learning experiences does not facilitate meaningful learning for the children?

– Repetition based on mere recall of content
– Formulating questions on content
– Discussion and debate on the topic
– Presentation on the topic

Chapter – 01:07:55 A teacher can help the children to process a complex situation by

– Encouraging competition and offering a high reward to the child who completes the task first
– Not offering any help at all so that children learn to help on their own
– Giving a lecture on it
– Breaking the task into smaller parts and writing down instructions


Click on the YouTube video link in the article above, to watch the entire video on YouTube. You can also click on the 'Chapter' link time-stamps to go directly to the specific question or part of the video.

Subscribe to MagicExam YouTube channel for free videos on CTET 2022 and 2023, KVS, TET, REET, DSSSB, UPTET, MPTET, MahaTET, APTET, TSTET, RTET, HTET, PSTET, KARTET, TNTET and other teaching exam preparation, solved question papers, syllabus analysis, result related news and other information videos.

If you have any questions, comments or feedback - please post them as YouTube comments under the specific videos and we will clarify or reply as soon as possible.
Basic Processes Teaching Learning Childrens Strategies Learning Social Activity Social Context Hindi